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The Origin of Effective Microorganisms

Liquid bacterial microbes working together creating a synergy among microorganisms and larger forms of life including insects and worms, livestock, and people.

Effective Microorganisms® - An Earth Saving Revolution

EM® is an acronym for Effective Microorganisms®. EM® is a brand name referring to a family of microbial-based products using a technology developed by Japanese scientist Dr. Teruo Higa. The main product, EM·1®, is a liquid bacterial product comprising three groups of microbes: Yeast, Photosynthetic Bacteria, and Lactic Acid Bacteria. EM·1® works together with local and native beneficial microbes, creating a synergy among microorganisms and larger forms of life including insects and worms, pets and livestock, and people. All products using EM Technology®contain EM·1® in some part of their manufacturing process: EM•1®, PRO EM·1®, Dr. Don's®, EM®Ceramics, Bokashi and Bokashi Food Recycling with Bokashi, EM-X Gold®, etc.

Principal Microorganism in EM

The product name has included several variations over the years including “EM®”, “EM-1®”, and “Kyusei EM™”, and it has been referred to as “EM1” or “EM4” in some research papers. The core product is now called EM•1®. All the formulations and intellectual property are owned and managed by EM Research Organization in Okinawa, Japan (EMRO). There are EMRO offices around the world that use variations of the name, including EMRO USA, EMRO Europe, EMRO Costa Rica, EMRO South Africa, EMRO Kenya, and so on. Under the guidance of EM Research Organization (EMRO), the use of EM·1® Microbial Inoculant has quickly spread to over 120 countries since its introduction in 1982.

The EM Philosophy or EM Principles

A unique part of the development of EM·1® is the development of the EM® Principles. Dr. Higa noticed that the microbes in EM•1®, which were not believed to live together in the wild, were able to survive in the culture. From his observation, he concluded that humans needed to learn from these microbes. All of those who are involved with this technology are expected to follow these principles because, without them all the pieces would fall apart. The principles are: Low cost, high quality, safety, convenience, co-existence, co-prosperity, exchange of information, and sustainability. Some years back, Dr. Higa coined the term "syntropy" to describe this phenomenon. All the tenets of the EM® Principles are intertwined. An example to follow the EM® Principles is presented by EM•1® itself. All the microorganisms in EM·1® co-exist, co-prosper, exchange information, are sustainable, are safe, are efficient, are effective, and service each other. EM·1 ® exhibits all the EM®


Developments continue as experiments and research with Effective Microorganisms® are conducted by EM Research Organization, APNAN, and several other entities that are licensed by EM Research Organization to sell Effective Microorganisms® products around the world.

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